In today’s world, full of global risks and problems, there is not a single country that can handle and tackle all of them alone. Poverty, climate change, epidemics, social tensions, conflicts are all major threats for the peace and security in our more and more globalized world.
Who will tackle them, how could the world resist them, which are the responsibilities of a country, or a group of countries in order to prevent these threats? These are the pending questions and the humanity is seeking answers within the frames of the currently existing international institutions. At the same time there is economic and political restructuring in today’s world and the differentiation of countries as developed and less-developed, or donor counties and countries recepients of the aid becomes even more layered. Nevertheless, we as social civil organizations in a country recently included in the aid donors’ group are concerned about the questions what does international development cooperation means, which are the main actors and the latest trends in the development sector.
The universal character and authority of the United Nations give them the leading position in meeting the appearing global challenges within the international development cooperation. During their forums countries’ representatives and experts from international governments and NGOs present various ideas, reach agreements, voice out new priorities and confirm their common duty. Gradually those strategies become broader, the policies become better coordinated, and the goals become more precise and measurable. The best illustration of this positive trend is the development of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Whether these goals will be completed by 2015 remains to be seen, but the direction is set and the world is preparing for the MDGs 2.0.
The international development management is gradually improving within the UN system and the operating functions, which the specialized organization undertakes, have larger and larger effect. Behavioral standards in giving development aid are advancing and supranational schemes for regulating the cross boundary challenges are formed. Furthermore, the person with his rights and especially the right of security is in the spotlight. One should not forget the leading role the sequence of international conferences led by UN has. The importance of these conferences lies in their strength in summarizing positive values, setting goals, developing various strategies and undertaking different working programs in specific development areas. The main attention is directed towards the most vulnerable segments of the international community and towards the developing global challenges.
The European Union and its member states are amongst the most active participants in the international development cooperation. Development cooperation is one of the supranational pillars of the European Union. What is specific about the political field Development cooperation is that the Community aid complements the member states’ current measures rather than replacing them, thus complying with the principle of complementarity. The European community, represented by the European Commission, is considered the 28th donor of Official development aid (ODA) of the European Union – with its own separate budget, politics and aspects, and with based on them development program.
Created by the postcolonial political relations of part of the member states, the European development politics are becoming a globalization requirement. They bear the traditional European values for freedom, fairness, democracy, protection of human rights, badly needed in the today’s highly polarized world. In these policies the human is in the spotlight of development cooperation. The adopted in 2005 Development Consensus between three of the main institutions of the European Union (the Council, the Parliament and the Commission) affirms the poverty eradication as its main goal. It also points out the main conditions for success such as good governance, inclusive and sustainable growth in the developing countries, recipients of the development aid from the funds or from the European Union’s budget. In the same direction goes the recently discussed “Program for change”. The target goal for the EU is to achieve a highly effective development politics, which can assert its leading role in determining the multilateral development cooperation regarding the MDGs implementations until 2015, and to define the road afterwards. In addition, there is a newer idea of applying differentiated development partnership, supported by the new criteria for aid allocation.
One could not talk about international development cooperation and development policies without mentioning the OECD at the forefront. It is the leading international organization in formulating goals, strategies and in control. During the last years it is initiator of all of the steps for enhancing the development aid efficiency. The OECD mission is to support policies, which can improve the social and economic conditions for people throughout the whole world. The OECD gives the floor to governments to share their experience and to solve common problems. The organization specializes in preparing of productivity, trade and investments’ analysis. They compare the data and make predictions for the future economic development. The norm is built upon the shared attitude towards the market economy and democratic institutions. The organizations’ analytical and statistical publications are highly valued by experts in the field of development cooperation.
In the international development cooperation there is a large playground for civil social organizations and their role receives more and more attention. They have both consultative functions and participations on the spot within government and non-government projects. In addition their work for increasing the citizens’ awareness is particularly important.
For the Bulgarian citizens it is important to know that since its accession to the EU in 2007, Bulgaria made a commitment to become an international development aid donor, and by 2010 its share should have reached 0,17% of the BNP, and by 2015 – 0,33% of the BNP. The country’s government is trying, even though in a slow pace, to build the necessary legal basis and to prepare middle term and long term programs with clear priorities. It is important to note that the development policy is an integral part of the Bulgarian Foreign policy and it serves for it fulfillment. It assists the national interest, which in today’s globalized world is spread wide enough within the world borders.
The content of the brochure is available only in Bulgarian. This document is created within the TRIALOG IV project, funded by the EU and the Austrian Development agency. The content of this document does not represent the official position of the EU or the Austrian Development agency. The Bulgarian platform for international development carries the sole responsibility for the content of the policy paper, as a beneficiary for the project “Enhancing the Quality and Content of BPID’s web site”